Manuscript Preparation

In-text Citations

Reference citations in text are done using parenthetical referencing. Most usually, this involves enclosing the author’s surname and the date of publication within parentheses, separated by a comma, generally placed immediately after the reference or at the end of the sentence in which the reference is made,  e.g. “Several reasons can be given for the lack of interest in the  radio as a medium (Caldwell & Richardson, 1995).” However, it is also common for the authors to be the subject or object of a sentence. In such a case only the year is in parentheses, e.g. “Caldwell and Richard (1995) argue that there are several…” In all cases of citation, author name(s) are always followed immediately by the year, and years are never presented without author name(s) immediately preceding it. In the case of a quotation, the page number is also included in the citation. Up to three authors appear in full on first citation, e.g., Kling, Hyde & Buswell (1999) but subsequently as King et al.(1999).  For four or more authors, indicate the first author followed by et al.

Reference List

The APA style guide prescribes that the Reference section, bibliographies and other lists of names should be accumulated by surname first, and mandates inclusion of surname prefixes. For example, “Martin de Rijke” should be sorted as “Rijke, de M.” and “Saif Al-Falasi” should be sorted as “Al-Falasi, S.” For names in non-English languages, follow the capitalization standards of that language.

Print sources

Book by one author

Tribe, J. (2004). The economics of recreation, leisure and tourism (3rd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier.

Book by two authors

Edmonds, W. A., & Kennedy, T. D. (2013). An applied reference guide to research designs: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Chapter in an edited book

Buhalis, D. (2000). Trends in information technology and tourism. In W. C. Gartner & D. W. Lime (Eds.), Trends in outdoor recreation, leisure and tourism (pp. 47-61). Oxon: CAB International.

Article in a journal

Karatepe O. M., & Avci, T. (2002). Measuring service quality in the hotel industry: Evidence from northern Cyprus. Anatolia: An International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 13(1), 19-32.

Churchill, A. G. (1979). A paradigm for developing better measures of marketing constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 16(1), 64-73.

Article in a journal with DOI

Kling, K. C., Hyde, J. S., Showers, C. J., & Buswell, B. N. (1999). Gender differences in self-esteem: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 470–500. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.125.4.470

Article in a weekly magazine

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today’s schools. Time, 135, 28–31.

 Article in a weekly magazine with DOI

Hoff, K. (2010, March 19). Fairness in modern society. Science, 327, 1467–1468. doi:10.1126/science.1188537

Article in a print newspaper

Wrong, M. (2005, August 17). “Never gonna give you up,” says mayor. Toronto Sol, p. 4.

Unpublished paper presented at meeting and conference

Dickson, T., & Dolnicar, S. (2004, February). No risk, no fun: The role of perceived risk in adventure tourism. Paper presented at the 13th International Research Conference of the Council of Australian University Tourism and Hospitality Education (CAUTHE), Brisbane.

Unpublished doctoral dissertation  

McDonalds, A. (1991). The impact of food preference on holiday experience. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada.


Electronic Sources

For electronic references, websites, and online articles, APA Style asserts some basic rules, including to (i) direct readers specifically to the source material using URLs which work;(ii) include retrieval date ONLY when content is likely to change (e.g., wikis); and (iii) include all other relevant APA Style details for the source.

 Online article based on a print source, with DOI (e.g., a PDF of a print source from a database)

Krueger, R. F., Markon, K. E., Patrick, C. J., & Iacono, W. G. (2005). Externalizing psychopathology in adulthood: A dimensional-spectrum conceptualization and its implications for DSM-V [Electronic version]. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(1), 537-550. doi:10.1037/0021-843X.114.4.537

Online article based on a print source, without DOI, without issue no. (e.g., a PDF of a print source from a database)

Marlowe, P., Spade, S., & Chan, C. (2001). Detective work and the benefits of colour versus black and white [Electronic version]. Journal of Pointless Research, 11, 123–127.

Article in an Internet-only journal

McDonald, C., & Chenoweth, L. (2009). Leadership: A crucial ingredient in unstable times. Social Work & Society, 7. Retrieved March 15, 2012, from 2009/1/articles/mcdonaldchenoweth

Article with no author identified (the title moves to the “author” position)

Britain launches new space agency. (2010, March 24). Retrieved March 15, 2012, from

Article with no author and no date identified

GVU’s 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.) Retrieved August 8, 2000, from /user-surveys/survey1997-10/

Entry in an online dictionary or reference work, no date and no author identified.

Verisimilitude. (n.d.). In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary (11th Ed.). Retrieved March 13, 2012, from

E-mail or other personal communication (cite in text only)

Monterey (personal communication, Sept 28, 2001)


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